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Wednesday, 01 January 2020

Travels to England's Cotswolds: An Architectural Tour - Page 4

Written by Emily and Russ Firlik
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The Perpendicular style 1,350–1,485, was a marked contrast to the Decorated. Curves were replaced with straight lines with repetitive, sober masculine lines. This Perpendicular style was the last phase of Gothic, a kind of national Medieval style of squareness: windows more uniform, wider and more expansive, mullioned windows, centered arches and wide arcades and a variety of vaulting types were best illustrated in three magnificent church structures found in Adderbury, Minster Lovell and Burford. The most outstanding features discovered were the stone carved patterns of foliage and flowers on the capitals, and the smaller rectangular doorway framing, and brilliantly detailed carvings.

 

GOTHIC: 1190-1485 : PERPENDENDICUAR - 1375-1485 - VILLAGE OF FAIRFORD, ST. MARY’S CHURCH

The Tudor style - 1,485-1,558, was one of the most exciting and interesting period for us as it was the tentative introduction of Renaissance architecture in England. The four-centered Tudor arch is a defining feature and the remarkable oriel or bay window is a centerpiece of this period. Tudor style was the final development of Medieval architecture in England. Most everyone recognizes the lavish half-timbered building in Stratford upon Avon. Technically, Stratford upon Avon is not in the designated region of the Cotswolds. We located several Tudor buildings in and around Oxfordshire: The Upton House in Banbury, Broughton Castle, the Rousham House and the Tolsey Museum In Burford. Their common characteristics included oak timbers and dormer windows. Interiors had open fireplaces, wooden staircases and richly wood-paneled walls with molded plasterwork to decorate the ceilings, cornices and walls. The Tudor style seemed to retain its hold on English tastes.

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TUDOR : 1485-1558 - IN ROUSHAM’S ROUSHAM PARK

Renaissance England- 1,558-1,702. Three historical phases and dates mark this Renaissance period in England: Elizabethan - 1,558 - 1,603, corresponding to the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and what historians depict as the golden age of English history; Second phase, The Jacobean, named after King James I; and the final phase, the Stuart, heavenly influenced by German and Flemish Baroque. This particular journey entailed endless driving on single lane roads and “B” roads, or second-class or minor roads connecting villages or town streets. However, the topography and landscapes during these drives were amazing: passing pretty villages and sheep grazing on rolling hills.

As we move further from the Gothic (1,190-1,485) churches we discover Renaissance buildings and Manor Houses such as Sherborne House, Kelmscott Manor and Westonbirt House in Tetbury in the Western Cotswolds. The common characteristics among these structures were the influences of Italian Renaissance and Dutch. External features such as curved gables, open courtyards, and chimney stacks clustered in groups of 2 or 3 reflect Italian Renaissance influence. Windows were generally made up of a multitude of small rectangular panes separated by thin mullions. The internal features included decorative ribbon-like strapwork, colored marble, and the most ostentatious main entrances.

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RENAISSANCE: 1558-1702 - KELMSCOTT MANOR IN KELMSCOTT

The most difficult findings that represented the Renaissance’s second phase was the Jacobean. We located The Dial House in Burton-on-the-Water, Wroxton Abbey, Bibury Court, The Chastleton House in Chastleton, and finally the house number 20, in our favorite village of Woodstock. General characteristics included the remains of the Elizabethan design, more use of columns and pilasters, flat roofs, open parapets (barriers which are an extension of the wall at the edge of the roof guards), Classical elements in a free and fanciful manner.

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JACOBEAN: 1603 - 1635 : BURTON OF THE WATER AND THE DIAL HOUSE

If we thought locating the second phase of Renaissance style was difficult, now we approach the third phase called Stuart -1,625-1,702. Although there are fewer examples of Stuart era examples in the Cotswolds, we enjoyed spending time in Chipping Norton to view the Almshouses -1,640, the fascinating village of Bibury, and a tasty pub lunch at the Stuart dated Swan Inn. We returned to Woodstock to view houses #’s16-20, on Market Street. Additional characteristics of this period included rows of identical windows, symmetrical facades, tall chimneys, beautiful brickwork, classical proportions, and the use of vernacular building materials that are local to the area.

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STUART : 1635-1702 - VILLAGE OF CHIPPING NORTON AND THE ALMSHOUSES OF C.N.

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Last modified on Thursday, 02 January 2020

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